DETERMINATION DISCOURSE OF PRELIMINARY DIFFERENCES OF LUNATION IN INDONESIA: STUDY ABOUT FIQH AL-IKHTILAF AND SCIENCE
Differences of determination lunation initial always happened in Indonesia. Indonesia actually has a lot of experts in the field of falak and Astronomy , but make inductive inferences are often done. In this paper will discuss: What lies behind the difference early lunar month in Indonesia? How Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf and Science to analyze differences in the lunation beginning? How alternative unification lunation difference in the initial determination in Indonesia? The research method is qualitative . This study uses the approach of Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf, astronomy, and falak. The collecting data techniques are documentation and interviews . Data analysis was done since collect data process. Initial determination of the lunation differences in Indonesia's background are : difference understanding in Syar'i argument , certain beliefs , methodological issues into theological and dogmatic. The problems analysis of differences in initial of lunation in Indonesia are associated with the method and results of calculations in preliminary determination, it is an area of science, related to the selection criteria for the initial month of the Lunar is a Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf field . Bids for the initial determination of the difference unification lunation in Indonesia are : agreement methods and criteria are used as guidelines in determining the beginning of lunation, as well as the existence of an authoritative department that sets the initial lunation.
Keywords: Difference Lunation Beginning, Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf, Science
"The differences is beautiful ." Indonesian people seem to have become accustomed to the difference when starting the fasting of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr, and Eid al-Adha . This differences matters even more visible since the passing of reforms in this country . Openness as a characteristic of the Reformation made the news about the vast differences in media exposure. Based on data provided by: http://rukyatulhilal.org on early establishment of Ramadan , Shawwal , and Dhul-Hijjah based computation systems are accommodated by the Government in the implementation of the confirmation hearing , obtained data on the differences in the initial determination of the lunation in Indonesia 1408 H / 1988 M - 1432 H/2011 M as follows :
Table 1 Preliminary Determination difference lunation In Indonesia
1408 H/1988 M - 1432 M H/2011
Determination of Initial Month
1409 H/ 1989 M and 1422 H/ 2001 M.
1412 H/ 1992 M, 1413 H/ 1993 M, 1414 H/ 1994 M, 1418 H/ 1998 M, 1423 H/ 2002 M, 1427 H/ 2006 M, 1428 H/ 2007 M, and 1432 H/ 2011 M
1409 H/ 1989 M, 1420 H/ 2000 M, 1423 H/ 2003 M and 1431 H/ 2010 M
Data are presented only on the difference in the initial determination of Ramadan, Shawwal, and Dhul-Hijjah, based on computation systems are accommodated by the Government in the implementation of the confirmation hearing/ Isbat, the fact on the ground were more complicated. Indonesia has Astronomy courses at the Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB) this program has been established since 1951. Since it was started has produced thousands of scholars. In 2007 Indonesia also opened Falak (Islamic astronomy) courses at undergraduate degree in IAIN Walisongo Semarang. in 2008 Also opened doctoral program and 2009 opened postgraduate program. beside that formal institution of higher education, in this country also have schools that taught himself or those studying abroad. then the question arises, why not be resolved differences preliminary determination lunation in Indonesia? even though technically, our nation has many experts in the field of Astronomy and falak.
What is the problem of differences in the initial determination of the lunation in Indonesia? So that the problem of determining the beginning of Lunar difference was not finished . Although the government had attempted to unify, but until now there are has been no result (just in vain).
According Mutoha Arkanuddin there are four criteria in determining the beginning of lunation in Indonesia, namely: 1) Criteria for success rukyatul hilal (bi al - fi'li), 2) Wujudul hilal criteria, 3) Imkanur rukyah MABIMS are guided by the government, and 4) Global rukyat. But the fact the differences in the Eid celebrations in Indonesia broader than the four criteria set out by Mutoha. Because there are a calculation method of Java Calendar Islam and followers of certain institutes have different criteria that expressed by Mutoha Arkanuddin.
Further more in this paper will be discussed the following issues: 1) are the underlying problem of the initial difference lunar month in Indonesia? 2) How Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf and Science analyze differences in the lunation beginning? 3) How the alternative unification of lunation differences in the initial determination in Indonesian?
The research method to address the problems are: This study was descriptive qualitative . Using the approach of Fiqh al–Ikhtilaf, falak and Astronomy . The technique of collecting data through documentation and interviews. the data were analysed since data collected, and inductive inference.
B. Determination of the Lunation Beginning in Indonesia
In determining the beginning of Lunar there are differences among scholars , most of them based on the results of the rukyatul hilal while others use the method of reckoning/hisab.
Early determination based on the success of the new moon /rukyatul hilal, must meet certain conditions . There are differences among scholars about these requirements . Hanafi requires determining the beginning of Ramadan and Shawwal are the result of rukyatul hilal of one big group , when the weather conditions or clear skies. If the condition are cloudy or foggy, sufficient testimony of one fair person to the success of rukyatul hilal. The success of rukyah by Malikiah, requires two or more fair person. And sufficient success one fair person of rukyatul hilal if conditions there are no doubt to be seen. an adequate rukyah by one fair person success by Syafi'iah and Hanabilah, although there are conditions under Syafi'iah barrier. But according to the Hanabilah and Malikiah success rukyah of beginning of Shawwal for the determination of Eid is a rukyah of two fair person. They also differed opinion about success testimony of women on rukyah. Received testimony on success rukyatul hilal of women according to Hanafi and Hanabilah and can’t be accepted by the Malikiah and Syafi'iah .
Implementation of rukyatul hilal as a method of determine the beginning of lunation in the archipelago was believed to have been implemented since Islam entered this archipelago. Based on the command to execute rukyatul hilal before Muslims fasting Ramadan and Eid. Every 29th of Sha'ban and Ramadan 29th Muslims crowded off to the hills or along the coast to see the new moon on the western horizon at sunset. If they successful on rukyatul hilal, then that night was the night of the new moon . But when the new moon was not successful to rukyah, that night was the night of the thirtieth day of the month in progress.
Advance implementation of the rukyatul hilal done spontaneously by Muslims to know the beginning of the month associated with worship. Implementation wais guided by the scholars. After the establishment of the Islamic empire archipelago, rukyat implementation, in addition to spontaneously carried out by Muslims, there are also coordinated by the religious authorities in the kingdom is concerned.
Judging from the means used to implement rukyatul hilal, in the past, rukyah original implementation is only done with the naked eye, without using any tools. After a more advanced culture, the implementation of any rukyah using support facilities. Means rukyah continues to grow in accordance with the development of science and technology.
rukyah implementation continues to grow. At first in the implementation of rukyatul hilal, people only look to the western horizon. There are as a result of their little or no knowledge in the field of astronomy or falak. after mastered both of the science well, the implementation of rukyatul hilal getting better and focused. They are able to focus and execute rukyah concentrated into a position where the new moon was suspected. Even hilal movements can be monitored. If successful rukyat hilal, the image can be documented. Position and time can be calculated very accurately.
Among experts reckoning there are also differences in the initial determination of the lunation. Among others who argue that it's the beginning of a new month is determined only by the occurrence ijtimak, while others are based on the ijtimak and moon position. Groups who hold to set a system of ijtimak if ijtimak occur before sunset, since the sunset that was the beginning of new month has begun. They did not talk about the new moon can be rukyah or not. Whereas those who hold on to the position ijtimak and if at the time of the new moon sets after the sun goes down and the position ijtimak moon was on the horizon, since the sunset, the new month begins.
Both of them are the same about the initial determination of the lunation coming, namely during the sunset after the ijtimak. However, they differ in defining the position of the moon on the horizon. ijtima’ qabl gurub did not take into account the position of the new moon on the horizon at sunset. Instead the group is holding on to the position ijtimak and claim that if the moon above the horizon at sunset, signaling the beginning of the cooming of the new moon . When the moon is not a form of, it's mean the last day of the current month.
The next two groups are subdivided into smaller groups. These differences are attributed to a phenomenon around the events ijtima’ and gurab asy-syams. discourse on the development of early determination of lunar month, a group that adhered to the moon are more adominant. Furthermore, the group discussed which are based on the wujudul hilal and groups based on the imkanur rukyah in initial determination of the month. Both of which were held on the new moon position and have a different standard or benchmark .
They are guided by the wujudul hilal guidelines state that early coming is already happening ijtimak before the sun goes down and the moon has been in existence when the sunset over the horizon. Meanwhile they are guided by imkanur rukyah stated that early coming is already ijtimak before sunset and moon at sunset is above the horizon at a height that allows for rukyah.
To determine the initial coming of the month, they are guided by the wujudul hilal based on the position of the hilal is above the horizon without mentioning a certain height. If the moon is above the horizon has been automatically sign of early month . They are guided by Imkanur rukyah specify certain height to allow for rukyah. Hilal height criteria is also interpreted differently, stating there is a height to allow for rukyah. In addition, there are other criteria such as supporting illumination months, the distance between the moon and the sun as gurub, the position of the new moon to the sun , the period between ijtimak and sunset, and others.
C. Differences Issue of Preliminary Determination Lunation in Indonesia
The following will be presented data on groups that could potentially cause them to differ with the determination of the government in the initial determination lunation in Indonesia.
1 . Muhammadiyah
Muhammadiyah is a group in the early determination of lunar using the results of reckoning (no observation / rukyatul hilal) . Muhammadiyah guidelines in determining early month, is adopted Wujudul hilal . Problems arise when the new moon height less than 2˚. One of the criteria of Government for determining the beginning of lunation is the height of the new moon 2˚. Based on the criteria for determining the beginning of lunation Muhammadiyah (Wujudul Hilal) , regardless of the height of the new moon on the horizon, it has entered the beginning of a new month . If the initial determination of the new month as it was, so, there was a differences between the Muhammadiyah and the Government.
2 . An- Nazir in Gowa, Makasar .
The an-Nazir in Gowa, Makasar guided by tide to initial influx determine lunation. Who has the authority to observe the tides is the head of the group. talk about the tide is indeed one of the events ijtimak impact . the quality of tide wave at the time of the ijtimak of course many factors that influence it, such as: the effect of ijtimak itself (sun and moon), wind and other planets. Furthermore tides certainly make the sign of the beginning of the lunation coming, needs to be studied further. Tide can’t be associated with the position of the new moon at sunset after the ijtimak events.
3 . adherents of Kejawen
Adherents of Kejawen which still exists and is often different from the Government. they are part of Javanese communities in Banyumas , Central Java. The system used in the determination of the early lunation, known in Falakiah as Urfi. The system they have inherited for generations of their ancestors. Urfi reckoning system based on the calculation of the average of the circulation of the Moon around the Earth. Urfi calculation is fixed, it's fixed age month every month. Odd months are thirty days while even-numbered months twenty are nine days. Thus the ninth month of Ramadan as a odd month will forever thirty days.
4 . Hisbut Tahrir Indonesia
HTI uses global rukyah criteria , particularly rukyah in Saudi Arabia, especially in the determination of Eid al-Adha. For them, the determination of Eid al-Adha by the determination wukuf in Saudi Arabia. If the determination of government is different from the determination of Saudi Arabia, then they will be different from the determination of the Government.
5. Congregation group / Tarekat
Among the congregation sticking group name associated with differences in initial determination of lunation in Indonesia, among others, is the Naqshbandi tariqa in Padang, West Sumatra . This group uses a calendar that they call Munjid. in the determination of early lunation. Methods Munjid has been passed down every year. Munjid method is reckoning by count 360 days of fasting last year. If in the previous year begin fasting Ramadan on Wednesday. For calculations, fasting this year begins five days after Wednesday. So Sunday. The beginning of the Lunar calculation method they use an Urfi reckoning. But to know their reckoning system deeply needs further research.
6. Cakung group
Cakung group is the students and sympathizers Mansur Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Abdul Hamid Damiri known as Mansur al-Batawi. In determining the beginning of Lunation, they are based on the books of Sullam an-Nayyiran. Based on Reckoning classification methods in falak seminars, April 27, 1997 at Tugu, Bogor, West Java, then the Sullam an-Nayyiran by Muhammad Mansoor bin Mohammed bin Abdul Hamid Damiri, Qawa’id al-Falakiyah by Abd al-Fatah ath-Thuhi and Fath ar-Rauf al-Mannan by Abu Hamdan Abdul Jalil is classified as Hakiki Taqribi reckoning .
Muhyiddin Khazin said that reckoning Hakiki Taqribi is the beginning of the reckoning calculations based on the average motion of the moon and the sun, so the result is an estimate (closer to the truth). When calculating the height of the new moon using sunset time minus the time ijtimak then divided by two.  Reckoning hakiki Taqribi have low accuracy rate . The fact that the calculation results are not supported by scientific arguments as disclosure of data, facts, and reality in practice in the field . In other words, sometimes the result of the calculation is different from the reality encountered in the field when the observation of the rukyatul hilal were done .
7. Nahdlatul Ulama ( NU)
NU in the early determination of success criteria using rukyatul hilal. Consequences of the use of these criteria is the beginning of the turn should be based on the successful lunation rukyah. On the condition of the calculation the hilal is above the horizon and has a height that allows it to succeed in rukyah , but due to rainy or cloudy weather factors that rukyatul hilal conducted in various regions unenforceable, then still to be decided not come to the new month.
This condition is of course a burden for the falakiyah minds among the Nahdlatul Ulama in particular. If this event occurs, then the bias will be the age of the next month to 28 days. It is certainly wrong because according to the guidance of the Prophet is 29 days lunation or 30 days. Provisions may not beyond them.
D. Problems Early Moon Lunar Differences In Indonesia
Data about the difference early lunation in Indonesia face a fundamental problem underlying this issue, as follows :
1 . Understanding the difference Proposition Syar'i
Prophet hinted start fasting Ramadan and Eid when he saw the new moon and end it when he saw the new moon at the end of the month . If the clouds obstructed , Sha'ban or Ramadan make it a thirty day.
Nahdlatul Ulama understand the commands execute rukyatul hilal is a form of worship. Rukyatul hilal conducted during the end of the month. This command must be implemented in order to worship the preliminary determination next month despite the hilal position based on calculation of reckoning or has not been possible to rukyah . Rukyatul hilal success is a way of determining the beginning of lunation. If at the end of the current month rukyatul hilal , crescent moon successfully entered a new month , but if not then do istikmal (complete thirty days of the previous month).
Other groups do the calculation / determination of the reckoning in the early lunation, no need to do rukyatul hilal. The group is represented by the Muhammadiyah. According to them the progress of science and technology are so rapid in recent times have managed to generate initial calculation method is very precise lunation or accurate . The method has a high accuracy of this has a very strong position (qath'i).
Observation/ rukyatul hilal faces many challenges in implementation. Equatorial weather disturbances in the area, human resource constraints that implement rukyatul hilal, and infrastructure. Thus be said that the observations / rukyatul hilal to determine the beginning of the lunar month position is zanny.
2 . Understanding / belief Specific
There are some understanding / specific beliefs ; which in this case is represented by a group of congregations and adherents Kejawen . Both of these groups actually not a group in the initial determination of the lunation. But both became associated with the initial determination difference discussion lunation as they both have their own method in the determination of the initial month.
Method of determining the beginning of the month they have a great potential to always be different from the start of the month determination by the Government. The method they use can be explained as follows :
a. Followers of the congregation, tend to follow the initial determination of the lunation are set by their Murshid . followers of the Naqshbandi tariqa in Padang using a method they call the method Munjid; a dating system which they have received for generations of their predecessors.
b. Followers of an-Nazir use tide of the sea as the basis for determining the beginning of the month.
c. Adherents Kejawen use Urfi reckoning calculations as the basis for determining the beginning of lunation.
In the the determination of early months that surfaced in Indonesia, in which case the determination of the beginning of Ramadan, Shawwal, and Dhul-Hijjah sometimes there are some differences between the calendar based on calculations Urfi with the verdict in the trial Isbat by government. Government in setting the benchmark confirmation hearing is the actual position of the hilal as a sign of the beginning of the entry of calculations based on the visibility of the hilal; imkanur rukyah boosted the rukyatul hilal results .
By reckoning hakiki , the beginning of the provisions of entry depending on the position the hilal. If according to the calculation of reckoning on the 29 month ongoing, hilal height allows for rukyah ( imkanur rukyah) government - in this case we follow the agreed criteria MABIMS (Minister for Religious Affairs of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore ), the height of the new moon minimum of 2˚, 3˚ minimal elongation, and age at least 8 hours of the new moon : and a sign that the inclusion of early next month. Tomorrow is the first day of the new month. But if it does not meet these criteria, then the next day is the last day of the ongoing month .
Thus the provisions of the age of a month is very dependent on the visibility of the hilal beginning of the month. In fact it is not necessarily life alternating between 30 and 29 days for odd and even months . It could be just the opposite age 29 and 30 days . It can also age consecutive months of 29 or 30 consecutive days.
That's the logic that sometimes makes calculations based Urfi reckoning is sometimes different from the reality, which is based on a calculation of reckoning hakiki. For example, for the calculation of 1st Shawwal , by any reckoning it always Urfi Ramadan was 30 days (due to an odd month - to - 9 months) . In the case could be a reality by reckoning hakiki, Ramadan was 29 days old. So that those who celebrate Eid by reckoning Urfi late one day of the government's resolve. Or is the opposite happened in the event, for example, in setting the 1st of Ramadan . Based on Reckoning Urfi Sha'ban was always aged 29 days (for a complete month - to - 8 months). Could be fact and by reckoning Essential Sha'ban age at the time of 30 days . So they are calculated based on reckoning Urfi fasting day of Ramadan precede the government's resolve.
Urfi noteworthy reckoning is used throughout the Islamic world, including in Indonesia in a very long time. With the development of science proved that the system is less accurate computation, it was used for the purposes of determining the time of worship. The cause for the circulation averaging Moon is not exactly correspond to the appearance of the hilal (new moon) at the beginning of the month.  So this Urfi calculation agreed by the scholars can’t be used as a guideline for the implementation of worship.
3 . Methodological issues Becoming Theological
At first, it is very possible that the method used in the initial determination of the lunation is a mere method. But over time, then the method rooted in society or group. and then tend these methods into an ideology/ belief .
This condition causes a lot happening on the followers of the traditional method (the pesantren) to the initial calculation of the lunar month they profess . They behave firm stance in early calculation method that has been passed down by teachers or their predecessors . This is the condition of follower of the book Sullam an- Nayyirain. Falak development in Indonesia is not always linear between the development of science with the reality that happened at that time. Assuming that in the mid -20th century, the method of hisab Hakiki Tahqiqi reckoning will grow rapidly replacing the old theory that has been scientifically fall, and the method of reckoning the hakiki Taqribi becoming obsolete . But the reality is not like that. Hakiki Taqribi reckoning method still has fanatical followers even until today. For example, according to the Department of Religious subsume stated that the calculation of an- Nayyirain Sullam book includes hakiki taqribi, low accuracy rate and sometimes different calculation results with the reality on the ground, again strangely existence is still recognized by the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Because the results of the calculation is still used as an initial determination of the trial judgment lunation the Ministry of Religious Affairs. To understand this problem, of necessary explanation, argumentation, and more in-depth opinion of the experts behind the reckoning rukyah preliminary calculations using the lunation reckoning system rukyah book Sullam an-Nayyirain.
According to adherents of this system , an- Nayyirain Sullam method is the result of ijtihad Mansur al-Batawi; al-ijtihad bi la yunqadhu ijtihad .
4 . Taklid/ imitation
The underlying problem is still have method of determining the beginning of lunation that have worn, had been left behind in the development of cutting-edge science and technology is the dogmatic attitude of the follower.
This dogmatic attitude; just follow, usually guided by what already exists; legacy of its predecessors without further research and investigation. This certainly would be detrimental to the development of science in the community.
E. Fiqh Al - Ikhtilaf And Science Analyzing Differences of Early Lunation
Differences in the initial determination lunation in Indonesia was caused by differences in the groups associated with the determination of the beginning of the month, as follows:
1. Muhammadiyah lunation in the initial determination using the results of reckoning (no observation / rukyatul hilal). They adhere to the criteria Wujudul Hilal.
2. Naqshbandi orders group in Padang, West Sumatra, the method of calculation which they call the beginning of the month in the lunar determination is Munjid. This method of calculation is based on alleged use Urfi reckoning .
3. An-Nazir in Gowa , Makasar guided by tide waves in determining the initial entry of the lunation. Who has the authority to observe the tide is the head of the group.
4. Adherents of Javanese in Banyumas, Central Java in the early determination using the calculations in the study of science known in falak is hisap Urfi. The system they inherited from generation to generation of their old people.
5. Hisbut Tahrir Indonesia using global criteria, particularly rukyah success in Saudi Arabia in the determination of Eid al-Adha .
6. Cakung groups in the initial determination based on the lunation an- Nayyiran Sullam book which is a method of reckoning Taqribi Hakiki .
7. Nahdlatul Ulama Rukyah.
That determination groups often differ in determination the lunation beginning with the establishment of the Government. The six groups and the method of determination of initial specifications of each month be reviewed by the study of Fiqh al-Ikhtilaf and scientific approach can be described as follows:
1. Method of determining the beginning of Lunar Naqshbandi tariqa group in Padang in West Sumatra, an-Nazir in Gowa-Makassar, Adherents Kejawen in Banyumas, Central Java, NU (related to the accuracy of the results rukyah implemented) , and the groups included in the study Cakung / area of science of determining the beginning of Lunation
Problems associated with the method of calculation and the calculation method of determining the beginning of the month that is used by groups in the study are included in the realm of science - in this case the science related to preliminary calculations lunar month . In Syar'i that made reference or benchmark in determining the beginning of Lunar is a success rukyah or data on the probability of success in the implementation of rukyah (imkanur rukyah). Advances in science and technology is very rapid, it can calculate the position and movement of the earth , moon , and sun with great accuracy. So they also produced early in lunation calculation method is very accurate and precise. This method identified by Hisab Modern.
Traditional methods such as the method of reckoning Reckoning Urfi , Taqibi Essential and Essential Tahqiqi (Kemenag version) of course are considered to have a low accuracy may even be partly even inaccurate. Similarly, the results of calculations based on observations of tides (an- Nazhir group) also uses the lunar observations - which are not in accordance with the calculation method which has high accuracy, and should be ignored.
This is because the calculation results produced by these methods tend to be different from the real conditions. The method is the result of ijtihad related to the calculation method of the early lunation. Not every result of ijtihad were categorized as zan (conjecture) that can be used as a basis in determining the law . Zan that need to be considered as the basis for determining if a law is in accordance with reality, zan which is clearly wrong; az-Zan al-bayyin khata-uh it should be ignored la ' ibrah. This formula can of course be used in case of determining of early lunation, use calculation methods that otherwise have low accuracy. The method of reckoning the beginning of the lunar month has a low level of accuracy, the results of calculations which are not in accordance with the actual reality at the time of the rukyatul hilal, then it should be ignored and can’t be used as a guide in determining the beginning of lunation.
2. Method of determining the beginning of lunar months Muhammadiyah, NU (rukyat success criteria) and HTI included in the fiqh al-ikhtilaf in the initial determination of the lunation.
Associated with the criteria in this case the wujudul hilal criteria adopted by Muhammadiyah, NU with rukyat success criteria, and the criteria that guided global rukyah by HTI included in the fiqh al-ikhtilaf in the initial determination of the lunation. Wujudul hilal criteria is the result of a decision/consensus and Tajdid Muhammadiyah Majlis Legal Affairs Committee in the early determination lunation. Similarly, the timber sets the Eid al- Adha by the establishment (especially the implementation of the field before staying at Arafah) Saudi Arabian government.
F. Alternative Bids For The Unification of the Lunation Determination Differences
According to the authors there are steps that must be pursued in order to realize the unity of determining the beginning of lunar Islamic calendar and the unification of Indonesia. Stages or measures to be implemented are as follows :
1. Method of Determination of Initial agreement lunation are used as guidelines.
Agreement on the method of determining the beginning of lunar months is very important. It is very diverse given the initial calculation method contained lunar month and growing in Indonesia. Each have the loyal followers, their numbers were many. These methods have different measuring systems to each other. The level of accuracy of calculation was different too. Of course the deal in terms of the methods that will be used as a guide or reference in the initial determination of the lunation is a method that has a high accuracy; namely Modern methods.
2. Agreement Criteria Reference
After the realization of the agreement in the calculation method used as a reference, then the next step is needed for the agreement of the criteria . This criteria are the conditions surrounding the phenomenon observed when the hilal of successful exchanges month old to the new moon. This phenomenon is the result of ijtihad, the mujtahid of the texts of the preliminary determination of the lunation. Then the phenomenon described in astronomy, the moon must be at least that old way, in such a height from the horizon, elongation should be vary distance between the moon and the sun , the fraction of such illumination, and so on.
This criteria is dynamic. Criteria can change in accordance with up to date results and success rukyatul hilal can be proven scientifically. If a deal has materialized in terms of the method used as a benchmark, but differ in the criteria used as a reference, then surely there will be differences remain in the initial determination lunation in Indonesia. It should be according to the criteria of some groups has entered a hilal, but according to some of the others may not, because they do not meet the criteria set.
Thus Islamic jurists in Indonesia have a discussion together about the beginning of the Lunation determination criteria described in the texts. When the understanding of these texts have been agreed, it will be the task of the experts it is easy falak and astronomers to put it in these criteria into the formulation of science - falak and Astronomy that are inexact because it is the area of science.
3 . Authoritative institutions to Establish
Government annually sets the beginning of Ramadan, Shawwal, and Dhul-Hijjah through siding confirmation mechanism. In the implementation of the confirmation siding invited mass organizations, astronomers, and experts of falak. In addition to receiving the report rukyatul hilal observation held in various places throughout Indonesia, the session also discussed the opinion of the members of the meeting about the problems associated with the decision to be taken later in the month the initial determination.
After listening and discussing, then at the end of the confirmation hearings pricing decisions taken earlier in the month that coincides with the execution of the trial.
In fact, the government's decision on determining the beginning of Lunar by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, was not fully accepted and implemented in the community. There are different groups with the results of the determination of the government. They do not run a joint decision in siding confirmation, they prefer to follow the decision of the chairman of the group.
Thus, the root of the problem is the competent authority in the initial determination of the lunation. Partly reasoned that our government is not Islamic government that is not required to be followed. Some of them followed the establishment of the Saudi government considered the world center of Islamic government, while others simply follow the leaders of their group.
Understanding above, causing the government's decision in confirmation hearings sometimes become less effective in society. So the existence of the agency that has the authority recognized by all Muslims in Indonesia are required. The existence of institutions kemenag need confirmation hearing affirmed its function in determining the initial lunar month in Indonesia.
G. Knot from the Above Discussion, Summed up as follows:
1. underlying differences in initial lunation in Indonesia: understanding the difference Syar'i proposition, understanding/belief that a particular, methodological issues into theological and dogmatic.
2. Fiqh al–Ikhtilaf analysis and the science of early differences lunation in Indonesia
a. Problems associated with the method of calculation and the calculation of the methods of determining the beginning of the month is the area of science as the method of determining the beginning of lunation of the Naqshbandi in Padang in West Sumatra, an-Nazir in Gowa - Makassar, Adherent - Javanese in Banyumas Central Java , NU (related to the accuracy of the results rukyah implemented ) , and group Cakung.
b. As related to the criteria - in this case the wujudul hilal criteria adopted by Muhammadiyah, NU rukyat with success , and global rukyah criteria are guided by HTI included in the review / region fiqh al-ikhtilaf in the initial determination of the lunation.
3 . Alternative for determining the difference unification initial lunation in Indonesia: an agreement that the method be used as guidelines in determining the beginning of lunation, a deal that made reference criteria, and the institutions that establish authoritative early lunation.
Anwar, Syamsul, Hari Raya dan Problematika Hisab Rukyat, Yogyakarta: Suara Muhammadiyah, 2008
____________, Almanak Berdasarkan Hisab Urfi Kurang Sejalan Dengan Sunnah Nabi saw: Surat Terbuka Untuk Pak Darmis, Almanak_Hijriah.pdf – Adobe Reader
Arkanudin, Mutoha, Kriteria Hilal, http://rukyatulhilal.org, acsess Nopember , 15th, 2012
Azhari, Susiknan, Sa’adoeddin Djambek (1911-1977) dalam Sejarah Pemikiran Hisab Di Indonesia, Yogyakarta: Proyek PTA IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, 1998/1999
_____________, Ilmu Falak Perjumpaan Khazanah Islam dan Sains Modern, Yogyakarta: Suara Muhammadiyah, 2007
____________, Sa’adoeddin Djambek (1911-1977) dalam Sejarah Pemikiran Hisab Di Indonesia, Yogyakarta: Proyek PTA IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, 1998/1999
____________,dan Ibnor Azli Ibrahim, Kalender Jawa Islam: Memadukan Tradisi dan Tuntutan Syar'i dalam Jurnal Asy-Syir’ah Vol. 42 No. I, 2008. Acsess on Maret, 5th, 2009 dari http://ern.pendis.kemenag.go.id/DokPdf/jurnal/07-susiknan.pdf, acsess on Nopember, 15th 2012
Badan Hisab dan Rukyat. Dep. Agama Pusat, Almanak Hisab Rukyat. Jakarta: Proyek Pembinaan Badan Peradilan Agama Islam, 1981
Depag, Pedoman Perhitungan Awal Bulan Qamariyah, Jakarta: Depag RI, 1983
____________, Pedoman Tehnik Rukyat, Jakarta: Depag RI, 1994
Fathurrohman SW, Oman, “Penentuan Awal Bulan Qamariyah menurut Muhammadiyah”. Paper on discussion Orientasi Kerukunan Umat Islam dan Tenaga Teknis Hisab Rukyat Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, on Juni, 14-16th, 2005 in Wisma “Puas” Kaliurang Yogyakarta
____________, Kalender Muhammadiyah, makalah disampaikan pada Musyawarah Ahli Hisab Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Juli, 29-30th, 2006
Khazin, Muhyiddin, Kamus Ilmu Falak, Yogyakarta: Buana Pustaka, 2005
____________, Interview on Desember, 28th, 2008 di Jepara
____________, Ilmu Falak dalam Teori dan Praktek,Yogyakarta: Buana Pustaka, 2008, Cet.ke-3
_____________, 99 Permasalahan Hisab Rukyat,Yogyakarta: Buana Pustaka, 2009
Muhammad, Zain ad-Din ibn Ibrahim ibn, al-Asybah wa an-Nazair ‘ala Mazhab Abi Hanifah an-Nu’man, Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Alamiyah, 1999
Pengikut Naqsabandiyah Sumbar Sudah Puasa Sejak Hari Minggu, 7 Juli, http://www.harianhaluan.com/index.ph...dang&Itemid=70 acsess on Agustus, 17th, 2013
Zuhaili, az, Wahbah, al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuh, Dimsyiq: Dar al-Fikr, tt
 Wahbah az- Zuhaili, tt, al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuh, Jilid III, Dimsyiq: Dar al-Fikr, p. 1656
 Wahyu Widiana, “Pelaksanaan Rukyatul Hilal di Indonesia“ dalam Selayang Pandang Hisab Rukyat, Jakarta: Ditjen Bimas Islam dan Penyelenggaraan Haji, 2004, p. 25
 Depag, Pedoman Tehnik Rukyat, Jakarta: Depag RI, 1994, p. 2
 Ibid, p. 2-3
 Badan Hisab dan Rukyat. Dep. Agama Pusat, 1981, Almanak Hisab Rukyat. Jakarta: Proyek Pembinaan Badan Peradilan Agama Islam, p. 99
 Susiknan Azhari, Ilmu Falak Perjumpaan Khazanah Islam dan Sains Modern, Yogyakarta: Suara Muhammadiyah, 2007, p. 109
 Muhammadiyah example in this case choosing the position of the Moon and the Sun as a sign of the beginning of the horizon, that is, when the sun first sets than the previous month after there has been a ijtimak. This is what is known as wujudul moon. The word on the word wujudul hilal, thus, not in the sense of visual sighting of the moon as shown in the traditions of the Prophet PBUH. but rather in the sense of conceptual hilal, which is part of the illuminated surface of the Moon facing the Sun to the Earth. Or more precisely, the term should be construed sun was exceeded by the Moon in its circulation from west to east; boundary is the horizon. Oman Fathurohman SW, Calendar Muhammadiyah, paper presented at the Consultative Expert Hisab Muhammadiyah , Yogyakarta, July, 29-30th, 2006
Pengikut Naqsabandiyah Sumbar Sudah Puasa Sejak Hari Minggu, 7 Juli, http://www.harianhaluan.com/index.ph...dang&Itemid=70 acsess on Agustus 17th, 2013.
 Muhyiddin Khazin, 99 Permasalahan Hisab Rukyat,Yogyakarta: Buana Pustaka, 2009, p. 79
 Susiknan Azhari dan Ibnor Azli, dan Ibnor Azli Ibrahim, Kalender Jawa Islam: Memadukan Tradisi dan Tuntutan Syar'i dalam Jurnal Asy-Syir’ah Vol. 42 No. I, 2008. acsess pada tanggal 5 Maret 2009 dari http://ern.pendis.kemenag.go.id/DokPdf/jurnal/07-susiknan.pdf, p. 137 acsess on Nopember, 15th 2012, p. 137
 Syamsul Anwar, Almanak Berdasarkan Hisab Urfi Kurang Sejalan Dengan Sunnah Nabi saw: Surat Terbuka Untuk Pak Darmis, Almanak_Hijriah.pdf – Adobe Reader, p. 8
 Muhyiddin Khazin states that still maketh an-Nayyirain Sullam book as a reference in determining the beginning of lunar months is to accommodate members of the public (- they pretty much sum) are guided by the book. He added that once proposed the heirs of the author of the book is to change that calculation is accurate but this proposal was rejected by them. Biarkanlan an-Nayyirain Sullam book as it is. Interview Desember, 28th, 2008 di Jepara