SELF MANAGEMENT OF STUDENT
(MARRIAGE DURING THE LECTURE)
Dosen Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan
IAIN Raden Intan Lampung
Based on this research the factors driving perform marriage during the lecture are:1) In order to avoid promiscuity, 2) More motivated to learn,3) avoid slander in society, 4) ease the burden of parents, 5) want to be independent 6) have found the perfect match,7) parents still help while study, 8) Draw closer to Allah SWT to run the Sunnah of the Prophet. Marriage during the lecture did not inhibit study, learning, academic achievement (IP value), but the activity in the organization on campus have started to be reduced. the married student more in order to continue to maintain the health to face campus activities and can organize and devote time to family and studies, for the students who have not yet married:it is advisable for those who are ready to get married, do not procrastinate to married, but must have the material and spiritual preparation that mature. For parents: authors are looking forward to the parents who have children who are interested in getting married should provide support both materially and spiritually as well as guidance to their sons and daughters who will enter the marriage because marriage proven through this research does not inhibit the study
Key note : Student, Marriage, Lecture
Students have the task to finish their study and this is the main goal to be achieved by each student as a main point for the next execution of their duties, namely to work. Therefore the activities undertaken will be a lot of oriented to studies. On the other hand the students as individuals also have other drives that need to be done, such as the need to actualize them self by following activities of intra-and extra-campus, as well as need in the maturing process like affection needs and self-esteem need.
Students who are in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood will begin to learn to be responsible for themself, for example, in determining the direction and purpose of their life, their beliefs, including determining a spouse. Normatively Prophet Muhammad SAW. also advocated by his saying narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud ra as follows: Meaning: "O group of youth, whoever of you have money, then let them marry. Because marriage is actually more lowered eyes and maintain the honor. He who does not have money, then let him fast, because fasting is actually a dampening desire. "(HR Khamsah).(Mansyur Ali Nashif 1993:p.838-839)
Hadith above is recommended for who will merried, are people who have been able to, because it can maintain a view of marriage and abstain from fornication. Because marriage is a very important thing in human life, then people start thinking of trying to be a very important event that has meaning in the life to come. The student who have taken the decision to do marriage would have to be ready to face the possibility that problems will arise, and how to overcome them. Because of the possibility of problems arising marriage issue was not only covering the marital relationship, child rearing, economic problems, and others. But the problem of course about lectures. Marriage are performed by students during their study requires to be able to do two tasks at once, namely as a student and a marriage person. Individual as the student is responsible for their future, devote all his attention not just go to university course, but sentience accomplish tasks such as creating reports, papers or thesis. also they must participation in intra-and extra-curricular activities. Routines like this will gradually change according to individual circumstances, such as interpersonal relationships with friend began to decrease and change, once after class finish had more time together and have a chat with friends or just to window shoping and now beginning infrequent, topic of conversation is also no longer focusing on what dress model trend and what is update and box-office movie watchable. Knowingly or not this change will bring the individual to a new adjustment.
In marriage life, the student, in addition to responsibility as a student as described above, the individual is also responsible for family life. Such responsibility inevitably must go hand in hand and balanced. Additionally sidelines busy university students who have been marriage are also still burdened with household tasks that take time and effort, as a wife to take care of her family, had to wake up early to clean the house, wash the dishes and provide some thing to eat at dining and much more. Once this task is complete if only they had to immediately rush to go to campus.
Through this research with the title: "Self Management of Student Marriage the During Lecture ” this research conducted at Students PGRA IAIN Raden Intan Lampung. the author wants to get empirical evidence on the existence of the marriage related to the university student in during the lecture.
B. Problem Formulation
Based on the reason above, it would reasonable if I put two underlying formulation of the problem on this research. The formulation of the problem are:
1. What are the factors that lead to the student perform marriage during the lecture?
2. What is the impact of marriage on the future of the university student?
C. Research Objectives
Base on the formulation of the problems mentioned above, the research aims to:
1. Knowing what factors are causing students to do marriage during the lecture.
2. Determine the impact of the marriage at the time of study of university students.
D. Benefits of Research
The benefits of this research are :
1. For author: This study is expected to provide an opportunity for the author to find out the actual reality by students who have done marriage during lecture.
2. Other party. This study is expected to be a Contribute constructive for students who will be married.
F. Discussion Scope and Limitations of Research
In order to obtain a clear point of view and avoid misinterpretations and the limitations of the author, so in this study the scope of the research are:
1. This study is limited to students of IAIN Raden Intan Lampung, Tarbiyah Faculty, Department PGRA 6th semester who have done marriage during the lecture.
2. Discussion of what factors are encouraging students IAIN Raden Intan Lampung, Tarbiyah Faculty, Department of 6th semester PGRA perform marriage during the lecture, and
3. Discussion of the impact of the marriage at the time of the study of university students of IAIN Raden Intan Lampung, Tarbiyah Faculty, Department PGRA 6th semester in terms of activity following the lecture, active learning, academic achievement (grades IP), and the activity joining the organization on campus after the marriage during the lecture
II. Literature Review
A. Marriage In Islam
Marriage (marriage in specific terms) is a process of forming a family, in order to meet the demands of reproduction and human biological needs. Marriage is a setting for human nature, that is not the same with animals, that in fill the demands of it's nature to take anarchic ways and without rules. (Fadloli. 1999 : 100).
The definition of marriage according to the experts are as follows:
a. According to Mahmud Yunus, marriage is a contract between the candidate males with female candidates to meet the basic need which is regulated by law. (Mahmud Yunus. 1990 : 1)
b. According to Imam Shafi'i, marriage is a contract by which a lawful sexual relations between men and women. (Muh. Idrus Ramulyo. 1996 : 2)
c. According to Sulaiman Rashid, marriage is a contract that justifies the association and to limit the rights and obligations and mutual help between a man and a woman who is not mahram. Marriage is one of life's most basic principles of major in the association or perfect society. Marriage is not only one path to the introduction of a people with other people but also would be a way to deliver aid to one another. (Sulaiman Rasyid.1994: 374)
From some of the above may be withdrawn notion that marriage is binding individual efforts in a different kind of life together, to achieve a happy life spiritual and physical. Arise in marriage rights and obligations that must be met between husband and wife as well as the association that aims to hold based on mutual assistance with hope of Allah's blessing. . (Sulaiman Rasyid.1994: 374) Affirmed by God in His Word:
Meaning: And if you fear that you can not do fair to the (rights of) women who are orphaned (if you marry her), then marry women else, do you enjoy: two, three, or four. Then if you fear you will not be able to do fair then (marry) only one, or the slaves whom you have. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice. (Q.S. 1989:p.115 An-Nisaa ': 3).
Glorious Qur'an considers that marriage has a high position in the lives of individuals, families and nations. So important that it is referred to as "heavy contract and promise strong" (al-al-ghalidh mitsaq) are not easily lost its sting. Word of God: Meaning: How are you going to take it when some of you have been hanging out (mixed) with the other as husband and wife. And they (your wives) have taken from you a strong covenant. (Q.S. 1989 An-Nisaa ': 21).
Marriage is a way chosen by God as a way for humans to breed for the preservation of his life, as Allah says: Meaning: O mankind, We created you from a male and a female and made you a nation-state and tribes that ye may know each other-know. Verily the noblest of you with Allah is the most righteous among you. Surely Allah is Knower, Aware. (Q.S.1989: Al-Hujuraat: 13).
In the term of marriage, Islam focused aspects of the problem in the peace, love and affection, and make the descent continuing basis in the form of the children and grandchildren".( Fadloli. 1999:p.101)
The meaning of marriage during lecture is a marriages are performed by students while still following learning activities in university.
Students's Perception about Marriage
In build an order of human life, not least the students, must have the foresight to realize their hopes. Students must have a target of how and when they had got married. Responding to marriage during lecture, a student must consider that education regarding the future, then a student who will marry should think again, carefully consider all its logical consequences, ie, sharing remittances from parents with wife. In understanding the meaning of marriage is not only to build a family, but further and core, marriage is the pillars of the community building, where the family is the corner stone of the first time the formation of a society. If a community or relatively good, it stems from a good family and vice versa. So it is not an exaggeration to say that the family is a miniature portrait of the community. (Arief Budiman. 1999: p.2)
The key to build a family that sakinah, mawadah wa Rohmah, is to seek knowledge or education. Mohammed Al-Mubarok in Budiman wrote about the process of community development: "Humans always lived and evolved from a circle to a larger circle, the one with the other is always in touch. At first she lived alone and it requires the fulfillment of physical needs. Then he came out of a small circle of personal of smallest entry in the domestic society. Of this unit he entered again to larger unit, called usroh (big family) and the last one he got a bigger unit that is society. (Arief Budiman. 1999: p.3)
Saw so much responsibility in a household, the family and the community it is necessary provisions and maturity in marriage kesebuah plunge. Therefore both the husband and wife should have the capital so he actually plunged into the world to equip themselves with the marriage of each of a science that will determine the future development planning next. If the initial development can be successful, then the next development will give satisfactory results. Seeing as how the urgency of educational capital in building a community, then this can be used as a material reflection for students who have the desire / vacillation in the marriage during the study. Education is the main foundation in build a solid construction and therefore must take precedence.
The law of delay marriage by Talib that depends on the impact on the people who put it off, such as:
a. When the result in question fall into adultery then delaying marriage is unlawful.
b. When the result in question had mild disturbances of physical health, delaying marriage is makruh.
c. If it does not result in damage to morals and health, delaying marriage is permissible. (M. Thalib.2000:72)
In Islam, marriage may take place when a person has been called mukallaf, which is concerned began burdened with the obligation to carry out Islamic law. While the signs of age mukallaf often characterized by the growth of underarm hair, voice grew, grew a mustache and others. (M. Thalib.2000:72)
In effect every person wants a family, no exception in students, they have a desire to settle down because they belong mukallaf, which if viewed in terms of the psychological can be said is ripe. However, many university age students, where the pattern of their behavior as teenagers look and still feels strange if they had to plunge into the world of marriage, they do not understand what the meaning of and behind the marriage. So in the long journey towards marriage life often things happen that are not desirable, many sharp pebbles and waves are blocked so that if it can not handle the pain, regret divorce even that will happen.
Marriage during the study terms with the problems that will arise because they have two responsibilities that responsible in their studies and responsible in the family. According to Budiman if a student has plunged into the world of marriage, it can be motivated by several factors, namely:
a. With the marriage can be lowered eyes, which means one can avoid turmoil uncontrolled lust. With the wedding will be maintained honor, so avoid sin and stains such as adultery, homosexuality, lesbian, masturbation / masturbation, ityanul batiniyah and others.
b. With the marriage during the study due to parental pressure, in the sense that parents choose / match while he has his own choice or because their parents can also expect to have grandchildren so forced to get married.
c. To other factors such as the occurrence of pre-marital sex which is sometimes difficult to avoid because it has been fulfilled by the passion of love. If the matter is like this, then the question is forced to marry to be done. (Arief Budiman. 1999: p.11)
The existence of a mature age for entering the campus world, has reached a mature age, as age 25, so that the various considerations that the marriage took place. Run some activities together would be nice if the results of the activity can be maximized and satisfying. But on the contrary if the activity can not produce something that maximum even worse is the failure of the sense of disappointment, despair, and regret will always haunt our every sigh. Not much different from the students who are both running between studies with marriage, they will get a satisfaction and pride that have been made if the target has been achieved, namely getting the wife and get a university degree, but on the contrary if the family lives of many problems that interfere the study, then there are anxiety and anger, especially when it comes to divorce or failed studies.
Marriage Students and Learning Activity
1. Definition of Students
Students here mean students who have graduated from high school (SMA), which at least has reached the age of 17-18 years. Until the next 4-5 years the student is still referred to as the late teens (adolesen period), in which a student was to adulthood and maturity. Age of the students in terms of physical development, their growth has matured and been able to perform its functions, such as in terms of sex, they have been able to descent, where the sexual drive in the future will be able to affect various emotions encouragement. (Yunan Yusuf.1999:p.1)
At this time, students are able to capture the abstract stuff and also be able to draw conclusions from the fact that the abstract was seeing. This capability will require a reasonable explanation of all the rules. However, when seen from the other side, they are simply not mature for his personal growth is still not finished, emotional and social aspects still need time to develop into mature, intelligence is growing, they wanted to be independent and not depend on others, but they have not been able to break away to earn their own living. He wants to be appreciated and cared for his opinion but can not be responsible in terms of economic and social. (M.Anshari.1989:p 75)
Students basically have not been able to stand on its own, especially in making a living to make ends meet, because their souls are still in shock and uncertainty. Social growth they are still running and they desperately crave self recognition and appreciation from others. (M.Anshari.1989:p 2006)
Students including youth groups according to the literature of psychology, is still considered the outcast group of normal human herd with an individual structural change is characterized by a variety of moving towards the achievement of maturity in various aspects such as intellectual, emotional, attitudes, values, biological. (M. Soelaeman Munandar.1992:p.105)
Students as one of the youth group is the successor to the struggle of a nation, a country that qualified milestone with these concepts because they are always struggling with a variety of scientific fields and is always associated with the problem of value, it is an ideological and cultural assessment, such as the young hope of the nation, future owners that carried by the student or students. But other than the student or youth still faces various problems like anxiety bleak future, frustrated that all the result of the gap between desire and expectation with the reality they face. The existence of this phenomenon is referred to as motion search for identity.
In general, youth who experienced the student begins in adolescence age of approximately 15 years and the end of 21 years, sometimes in extended up to age 25 years. This means the end of adolescence and early adulthood aged 21 to 25 years is named after young adulthood. According to Soelaeman young adulthood is a time of trying to have the attitude that generally include:
a. Determines its goals.
b. Find private.
c. Outline the course of his life.
e. Collect its own norms. (M. Soelaeman Munandar.1992:p.90)
Lewin in Said and Affan said the theory of "Field", he sees youth as transition with characteristic uncertainty status, burdened with conflicts, emotional instability. On one occasion Malik Fajar give meaning students are young people aged poor experience. But at some point he also gives understanding and classifying students as "The Best Human Material".
Marriage During the Lecture
Marriage during the lecture can be viewed as an opportunity and a challenge. Called opportunities, in university is a time of soul formation seseoarang to adulthood thinking, attitudes, and social. In college a student is required to be able to grow mature in thinking, attitude, and other psychological sebaginya. Because during the course of independence to forge ourselves with all the openness and freedom can be achieved. If a man fails in personal form in college, then kmungkinan most likely fail in the days to come after college. At the school term was also an opportunity to find a life partner both husband and wife. There a lot of options and alternatives. Which the opportunities we might not get the post-university.
Looking for a couple days of school is the opportunity. But marriage students future poses many challenges. Mental state and thought that was to proceed, unfinished college and need to complete seriousness, conditions of employment and income uncertain. Parents also may not be allowed, for fear that their lecture will fail and fall apart. Will be married anytime and anywhere if it is followed by the preparations. Even in old age and is financially secure, married will fall apart if it is not accompanied with the preparations. Moreover, marriage in their university career, which would require extra preparation. (Ibnusyam,)
A. Approach and Research Type
This study used a qualitative approach. According to Bogdan and Taylor, as quoted Moleong define "qualitative methodology" as a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written or spoken words of the people and behaviors that can be observed. This approach is directed at the background and the individual in a holistic (whole). (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.3)
So in this case should not isolate individual or organism into a variable or a hypothesis, but it should be looked at as part of a whole. According to Kirk and Miller define that qualitative research is a particular tradition in social science that fundamentally depends on the observations in humans in its own region and in touch with the people in his language and the terminologies. (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.3)
The reason for this study used a qualitative approach in this study is that the data generated in the form of descriptive data obtained from the data in the form of writing and the words that came from informants that can be researched and credible. Qualitative methods are used for several considerations. First, qualitative methods adjust more easily when faced with the reality double, second, this method presents the direct nature of the relationship between researcher and informant, and third, this method is more sensitive and better able to adjust to the sharpening effect with many patterns and the value faced. (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.5)
Location and Research Schedule
The research was conducted in IAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The grounds, first encountered some students who perform marriages during the study, the two researchers is a lecturer at IAIN Raden Intan Lampung. so that the information pertaining to the subject of the research can be directly collected by the researcher. As for the data collection was done with a span of approximately two months.
Resources of Data
Resources of data in this study is the subject of where the data can be obtained. According Suharsimi Arikunto in his book The research procedure that is the whole subject of the study population. If someone has all the elements that exist in the area of research, the work was a population study. Study population can only be done for finite populations and the subject is not too much.
Population or Universe is the total number of units of analysis characteristics would be expected. Populations can be differentiated between sampling population to the target population. (Masri Singarimbun. 1987: p.108). The population sampling in this study is the total number of students IAIN Raden Intan Bandar, Faculty Tarbiyah PGRA majors. While the target population in this study was the total number of students IAIN Raden Intan Bandarlampung, Faculty Tarbiyah PGRA majors, who have done married. After the researcher made several observations obtained from the student how the target population.
In this study, researcher used purposive sampling technique in which informants selected based on certain considerations. In purposive sampling technique is no standard criteria regarding how many informants to be interviewed. (Deddy Mulyana. 2003: p.182) In this case the researchers set criteria for research subjects to be studied as follows: IAIN Raden Intan Bandar Student, Faculty Tarbiyah PGRA majors who have done marriage during the lecture; Marriage are performed have been recorded at KUA (Office of Religious Affairs).
According to Lofland and Lofland, as quoted by Moleong stated that the primary source of data in qualitative research is the words, and actions rest is additional data such as documents and others. (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.112) Given this research is descriptive qualitative research, the data collected is presented in the form of words and actions as a primary data source. The rest is additional data such as documentation, and others. In this section the type of data that the research will be described as follows:
1. The words and actions. The words and actions of those observed or interviewed a primary data source. The main data sources are recorded by written notes or audio recording via tape.
2. Written sources. Additional material from written sources can be divided into source and source book of records and personal documents such as marriage licenses, photo informant, or the information from transcripts.
Analysis of the data according to Patton is "a process of arranging the order of the data, organizing it into a pattern, category, and description of the basic unit". (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.103). Bogdan and Taylor defines data analysis as the process of detailing the formal effort to find a theme and formulate a hypothesis (idea) as suggested by the data, and in an effort to provide relief to the theme and the hypothesis. (Lexy J. Moleng. , 2003: p.103) Data analysis is the process of simplification of data into a form that is more easily read and interpreted. Thus it can be concluded that the definition of the data analysis is the process of organizing and sorting data into patterns, categories, and a description of the basic unit in order to discover themes and working hypotheses can be formulated as suggested by the data. In analyzing the data collected through the study of both library and field research, the researcher uses descriptive qualitative method of data analysis that is contrary to the inductive analysis of empirical data to build concepts and theories. Of the data to the concept of a motion passed to a higher level of abstraction, not counting tabulation. Data were accumulated under a label that eventually developed into statements about nominal devisis, meaning theoretical or substantive content of a concept. One way to "meaning" on the basis of inter-relationships in a more natural category system is, because the whole ismaintained, as the facts reduced to the size / number. (Sanapiah Faisal:90)
Qualitative research report called scientific if it has met the criteria for the validity of the data is the first standard of credibility (trust or internal validity) is the degree of confidence the researcher can demonstrate to the public by way of proving to the research results, both standard transferability (external validity) is the result of research can be generalized, applicable and applied in all contexts, third dependability (dependence or reliability) if the research is done two or more times repeating a study in the same condition and the result was essentially the same, standard four confirmability (certainty) that the objectivity of a study means it can be trusted , factual and can be confirmed.
Based on the results obtained in the field study showed that the factors driving perform marriage on the background of the study period there were almost the same between one student with another student. There are factors driving perform marriage during the study include:
1. In order to avoid promiscuity,
2. More motivated to learn,
3. avoid slander in society,
4. ease the burden of parents,
5. want to live independently
6. have found the perfect match,
7. parents still help, so that there is help through study,
8. Draw closer to Allah SWT to run the Sunnah of the Prophet.
From the research, the researcher obtained in the field shows that the marriage at the time of the study did not find the data given the barriers to lectures, active learning, academic achievement (the transcript), but the following activity in campus organizations have started to be reduced. In the sense that for students who are active before marriage following the lecture, active always learning, has the academic achievement well, after marriage do not inhibit the activity of lecture, active learning, no impact on the declining value of the IP, but the following organizations active in campus began to be restricted.
a. For students who have done marriages during a lecture :Congratulations for their marriage, so hopefully sakinah, mawaddah wa Rahmah family, the field of academic achievement, but for those who are currently pregnant should be continued in order to maintain the health of college activity in the pregnant condition, and even more so when had a baby, to stay healthy and can be set up and devote time to family and studies, given after the marriage has two responsibilities that must be executed at the same time. responsibilities as a married man, and responsibilities as a student who is conducting the study.
b. For students who have not done marriage : Based on interviews with students who have decided to get married while studies and apparently did not hamper their studies, it is advisable for those who are ready to get married, do not procrastinate to enter the world of marriage, but are expected to have the readiness and preparation of material and spiritual mature.
c. For further research: The authors recognize that this study may not be generalized to all regions and universities, but this finding may be so informed and for researchers who want to conduct research on the same topic, may be able to dig up more information on informants in different places so as to discover new facts so that research results are more varied.
d. For parents: The authors found that during an interview with the informant there are parents who initially did not support, but currently do this interview parental attitudes have softened, for the authors are looking forward to the parents who have children who are interested in getting married should provide good support materially and spiritual support and direction to his sons and daughters who will enter the marriage because marriage proven through this research does not hinder the process of student study actually found that increasing student achievement after marriage, in addition to other benefits, especially to avoid sin. Hopefully the results of this study can be considered for the elderly in response to his desire to do a wedding in the study period.
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